Passage seven(Stricter Traffic Law can Prevent Accidents)
*Review:**军方想要建立一个美国的国防高速公路系统，考研论坛。Chen Su was admitted to a Beijing college. That night, he was bumped against by someone and woke from a car.*
Passage 2 美国高速公路发展历史
From the health point of view we are living in a marvelous age. We are immunized from birth against many of the most dangerous diseases. A large number of once fatal illnesses can now be cured by modern drugs and surgery. It is almost certain that one day remedies will be found for the most stubborn remaining diseases. The expectation of life has increased enormously. But though the possibility of living a long and happy life is greater than ever before, every day we witness the incredible slaughter of men, women and children on the roads. Man versus the motor-car ! It is a never-ending battle which man is losing. Thousands of people the world over are killed or horribly killed each year and we are quietly sitting back and letting it happen。
Aside from the red emergency stop button and the top-secret display screen that visitors may not photograph, the Cadillac SRX prototypes being tested here look just like the production cars.
Being frozen, Chen Su looks at the such deep pit with stiffing constantly, then looks at them, in the headlights of the shadow they look like ghost. The only thing Chen Su can think is death.
They would like to kill him! He is so scared that he runs away as soon as possible. But sadly after only several steps, he is arrested, threw back with the arm caught, slammed on the ground among these awful men. The sound of broken bone is so clear and harsh.
‘What the fuck! How did you check it! You said he was dead!’Someone blames recklessly.
‘How could I know why he woke up again, fuck, it’s in vain to dig a pit!’The otherman sayswhile watchingthe pit and Chen Su,who is trying raising himself up from the ground.
’No!’Compared to the life, the arm ache really doesn’t matter. He is so frightened that he is shaking his hand and scaring,’Please don’t kill me, I won’t say anything!’
’Fuck!’Laughing with contempt,‘who would fear that,such punyman can go where to claim, who care!’The manutterslaughterarrogantlyand sarcastically.
Chen Suis stiff, is there really the China?! The textbooks say that our country is a socialist country and everyone is equal, isn’t it right?!
‘Let him go, it doesn’t matter he is alive. Let’s go.’Throwing the totally new shovel and gettingin the car, that man says, 'It is so warm in the car.'
At once, they areall in the car, leaving Chenalone with legs shivering, dazzlingandpale. It seems nothing happened just now for them and the driver launches the car, with the engine ringing - Chen Su is staring the people in this car to be driving away and the uninhabited place at a loss, then frightened to find it hopeless that he would be left here on his own.
'You, get in!' The driver calls Chen Su.
'Why pick him up! We are so unlucky.' The person at copilot feels impatient.
'Count his life, also for we are not so unlucky,' the driver says peacefully and once again indicates Chen Su to get in the car.
Unless he has another option, Chen Su won’t get in this ghostlike black car, but the winter night is really cold, the wind blowing in the hills, nothing even a ray of light around here, Chen Su really has no idea about where it is in the end. Chen is not a particularly bold person, for fear that they oppose to pick him up he quickly squeezes in the car, sitting at the back row where a person does not speak or see him, Chen Su tries to be as close as possible to the window stature , the wrist caught before is so painful, the person is actually the one who threw him down, just hit the 170-centimeter, fifty-five-kilogram Chen Su on the ground.
The car staggers on the road in the mountain with music. Always having motion sick in the past, Chen Su does not dizzy this time really because of such fear!
There are totally four people including Chen Su in the car, the driving person is fairly gentle, the next is the man who talks mostly rudely, speaking always with curse. However, the man sitting on the back of the car, who hasn’t say anything, is the one Chen Su afraid of the mostly. The inside space of the car is much larger than it looks, the dreadful man sits in the back seat occupying two positions where can accommodate at least three people. Overwhelming and cold, even Chen Su has never seen similar one like him in the world, he still owns the instinct, and he sits together with him like sitting on the needle, how dares to see him even touch him?
After bumping in the car for a long time and finally seeing the early morning ray, Chen Su ‘s nervous mind is full of joy, a feeling of survived, he is staring at the distant light with eyes full of the hope. Although bright light looks just in front of the car, it really spends a long time before entering the wide road. The man sitting in the copilot has even a few of curses, ‘how do you cross to the provincial highway, ah, and now it needs to go round before arriving."
Known about driver detours, Chen Su feels more comfortable to watch the lights and traffic of big road. Chen Su consciously touches his trousers pocket with 5 RMB, and he doesn’t dare to get off to escape, but finally he has a little relief.
The horizon gradually becomes white, when the scene appears out of the window, Chen Su’s uneasy heart really puts down, the terrible night passes in the end. Eyes blurry, Chen Su finds that his glasses have been gone, 800-degree myopia makes Chen Su watch the front like in a fog, thinking of the clear pit last night, he really could be sure enough there is life instinct, going through the disaster, the rest of his life is renew. After a whole night of fear and tension then suddenly in the relaxed status , Chen Su could no longer confuse to sleep when the dawn comes. The car is shaking to the entrance of the highway and it is far away from Beijing.
Chen Su is not a smart and sensitive man, but Chen Su wakes up in a abnormal feeling .
People are still in the car and the car has stopped, but Chen Su is lying against one other, no exactly! Accurately, Chen Su is almost lying in the arms of the other, while the two men in the front of the car are staring at them, face to face.
‘Do not move,’at once the driver reaches out to press Chen Su not to climb up, ‘You do not move, let him sleep a little longer.’Chen Su now recognizes the man may be not actually much older than himself. The driver is still like a student with a modest and gentle appearance, his hand pointing to the head on Chen Su’s shoulder where the cold man is sleeping on.
From such a close distance, Chen Su could only see his half face, even in the sleeping his eyebrows are wrinkled, face like a cold knife. Chen Su is so afraid of this person, afraid of the reality that he put him up and throw right down to the ground. Once thinking of this matter the right shoulder suddenly is sore, but Chen Su does not dare to move, to maintain this position is not tired, and very warm, but the mind to escape the danger is eager.
The United States has one of the best highway systems in the world。 Interstate highways connect just about every large and mid-sized city in the country。 Did u ever wonder why such a complete system of excellent roads exists？ For an answer， u would have to go back to the early 1920s。 In those years just after World War 1， the military wanted to build an American highway system for national defense such a system could if necessary move troops quickly from one area to another。 It could also get people out of cities in danger of being bombed， so-called roads of national importance were designated， but they were mostly small country roads。 In 1944 Congress passed a bill to upgrade the system but did not fund the plan right away。 In the 1950s， the plan began to become a reality。 Over 25 billion dollars was appropriated by Congress and construction began on about 40000 miles of new roads。 The idea was to connect the new system to existing expressways and freeways。 And though the system was built mostly to make car travel easier， defense was not forgotten。 For instance， highway overpasses had to be high enough to allow trailers carrying military missiles to pass under them。 By 1974，this system was mostly completed a few additional roads would come later。 Quick and easy travel between all parts of the country was now possible。
It has been rightly said that when a man is sitting behind a steering wheel, his car becomes the extension of his personality. There is no doubt that the motor-car often brings out a man’s very worst qualities. People who are normally quiet and pleasant may become unrecognizable when they are behind a steering-wheel. They swear, they are ill-mannered and aggressive, willful as two-years-olds and utterly selfish. All their hidden frustrations, disappointments and jealousies seem to be brought to the surface by the act of driving。
Except these vehicles drive themselves.
Soon, while the eyebrows of this cold man are beating, the front two turn back and Chen Su climbs up quickly and sensibly although this action makes arm sore but he hardly dares to create any noise.
The cruel man wakes so rapidly almost like he never sleeps. Chen Su shrinks to the car window. It seems noon already. It is so shameful that Chen Su has no idea about how to open the door, which causes he has no possibility to escape current predicament. The man sitting in the copilot gives Chen Su some cash, ‘Just take the money to see a doctor. Forget the night! Do you understand?!’His words is neither a threat nor a consultation, but a command with self-confidence.
Car drives away, Chen Su is pinching money and at a loss about where he is, that car disappears in the traffic sea. Chen Su wants to throw the money with integrity, but the fact that earning money is so tough and his parents working day and night does make him not dare or willing to do so, not to mention his pocket has 5 RMB only. High degree without glasses makes it really difficult to know where it is. He carefully selects a white taxi and uses 32 RMB to taxi to his school, as going a circle round in Beijing, then in the glasses shop of the street back of the school, Chen Su spends an hour to get a new glasses used 45 RMB.
Wearing new glasses, the world is clear again. If not the shoulder is still painful and there is more than 700 RMB in jeans pocket, Chen Su would like to take all the things as a nightmare.
At the school doctor’s office it has been confirmed to be dislocated, bone pain is nearly deathlike when the broken bone is repaired . Then he feels much better no sooner later, that the bones not broken is so lucky. Although the swollen right shoulder still needs to recover for a few days, to be cured by medical wine , this remains not so unfortunate.
That 700 RMB has pressed on the bottom of his big red locker , Chen Su sleeps a couple of days and then still dares not to think about that day, not to mention turning to police for help, furthermore that day Chen Su should have thought of noticing the license number of the black car! Now thinking back, it is actually the first time for Chen Su to ride a car, however, Chen Su would rather never experience it during his lifetime.
His dorm mates arrive one by one. Chen Su stays in dormitory to recuperate until the lessons begin ,he is determined not to go out in the evening, the shoulder completely isn’t painful when the school life restarts, and finally he does not have to wipe the the medical wine with wired smelling.
These days are all fine, being warmer fast. Four days ago, all the people were wearing a winter coat, continuously a few days of sunshine let a lot of girls put on a fresh spring cloths. Not only the campus becomes relaxed and comfortable but also the early spring atmosphere makes Chen Su regards that night as an unbelievable dream.
This is a junior college, 99 percent of the students come from another cities. Totally there are two buildingseach with three floors. Theirpattern is the barrel buildingin 1970s, where a lot of male studentslive in. The guard man is ostensible that only earns without truly working. The girls dorms is in front of boys’,separatedby a thick fence. Boys should walk alongthenorthernwall, while girls need to go another anticlockwiseway, there a specific door opening to the south. Although there is no strict management principle, it remains a distance between boysand girls. It is obviously all the boyswaiting atthe buildings’ gate aren’t single. However, today, it is really strange and eye-catching thatseveral boys(owning car)should wait in front.
The school’s studentsare mostly outsiders, not much morefashion than Chen Su. He recognizesthese tall figure men who has driedyellow hair must notstudents in this college, then he stares for seconds holding his own lunch box.‘It is so modern and such extraordinary thing to color hair yellow, symbolizing lack of nutrition!’
‘You, yes! Wait!’ Familiar sound makes Chen feel nervous. New glassesare wore off and the front is mixed by fog. His face turns pale, it should be the copilotperson in that scary night!
‘Sure enough it’s you. How could you wear such ugly glasses? No wonder we couldn’t find you, so that you are myopia!’
Chen Su's lunch box is delivered by the man to Chen’s roommate standing the side.
Then he reaches hand to Chen Su, dragging him away the dorm’s circular door. That action makes Chen’s feet hardly reach the ground. Too great power to let Chen shout for help.
‘I really said nothing to anyone! Don’t touch me, I know nothing!’Chen Su is afraid of them specially in heart.
TO BE CONTINUED......
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Questions 19 to 21 are based on the passage you have just heard。
The surprising thing is that society smiles so benignly on the motorist and seems to condone his behaviour. Everything is done for his convenience. Cities are allowed to become almost uninhabitable because of heavy tragic; towns are made ugly by huge car parks; the countryside is desecrated by road networks; and the mass annual slaughter becomes nothing more than a statistic, to be conveniently forgotten。
Here at its proving grounds, General Motors is working out the kinks in the Super Cruise feature that it wants to launch by 2020 as its first push into hands-off driving. During a recent demonstration, GM showed journalists that the prototypes can follow the pace of traffic and follow a lane for minutes at a time -- though the driver must always be ready to take back the wheel.
Q19。 What does the speaker say about the American highway system。
It is high time a world code were created to reduce this senseless waste of human life. With regard to driving, the laws of some countries are notoriously lax and even the strictest are not strict enough. A code which was universally accepted could only have a dramatically beneficial effect on the accident rate. Here are a few examples of some the things that might be done. The driving test should be standardized and made far more difficult than it is; all the drivers should be made to take a test every three years or so; the age at which young people are allowed to drive any vehicle should be raised to at least 21; all vehicles should be put through stringent annual tests for safety. Even the smallest amount of alcohol in the blood can impair a person’s driving ability. Present drinking and driving laws (where they exist) should be mad much stricter. Maximum and minimum speed limits should be imposed on all roads. Governments should lay down safety specifications for manufacturers, as has been done in the USA. All advertising stressing power and performance should be banned. These measures may sound inordinately harsh. But surely nothing should be considered as to severe if tit results in reducing the annual toll of human life. After all, the world is for human beings, not motor-cars。
The strategy is less bold than Google's. The technology company surprised the auto industry with vows that within five years, it will have market-ready technology that can carry passengers from point A to point B without input from a driver. GM also is not talking as big a game as Nissan, which announced last month that by 2020 it will have a fully self-driving car using technology called Autonomous Drive.
Q20。 What was the original purpose of building a highway system。
1. The main idea of this passage is
But according to John Capp, GM's director of global active safety, the company sees a step-by-step approach as the best way to bring self-driving cars to market.
Q21。 When was the interstate highway system mostly completed。
[A] Traffic accidents are mainly caused by motorists。
"This is about the level of functionality that we think is realistic fairly soon," said Capp, 49. "Maybe somebody else will solve all of the problems inside the same window and get that to market. And that would be remarkable."
[B] Thousands of people the world over are killed each year。
Capp said that by the end of the decade, GM will put the automated road trip feature in an add-on package for a price close to the $3,000 that Cadillac buyers already pay to outfit a car with sensors and cameras for driver assist features.
[C] The laws of some countries about driving are too lax。
Luxury brands such as Mercedes-Benz and BMW are seen as being in the lead on self-driving cars. For the 2014 model year, both companies came out with low-speed systems meant to turn the wheel and work the pedals in traffic jams, and within a few years they could start offering hands-free, feet-free software that can handle highway driving.
[D] Only stricter traffic laws can prevent accidents。
Richard Bishop, a Maryland-based consultant on connected cars, said a larger automaker such as GM or Nissan could still shake up the market by coming out with a system such as Super Cruise that will operate at a full range of speeds on the highway.
2. What does the author think of society toward motorists?
By announcing that it plans to be there by 2020, Nissan was trying to "get into the club in a public way," he said. "Now it seems that every car company has to take that step, if they haven't already."
[A] Society smiles on the motorists。
Charles Green, an engineering specialist at GM, said the Super Cruise team wants its feature to work up to any speed limit in the United States.
Passage 3 智能方向盘
[B] Huge car parks are built in the cities and towns。
There will be a top speed, though. "Some people will be disappointed," Green said.
Texting while driving was listed as a major cause of road deaths among young Americans back in 2013。 A recent study said that 40 percent of American teens claimed to have been in a car when the driver used a cell phone in a way that put people in danger。 This sounds like a widespread disease but it‘s one that technology may now help to cure。 T.J。 Evert， a 20 –year-old inventor， has come up with a novel solution that could easily put texting drivers on notice。 It’s called Smart Wheel and it‘s designed to fit over the steering wheel of most standard vehicles to track whether or not the driver has two hands on the wheel at all times。 Evert’s invention warns the drivers with a light and a sound when they hold the wheel with one hand only。 But as soon as they place the other hand back on the wheel the light turns back to green and the sound stops。 It also watches for what’s called “close by hands” where both hands are close together near the top of the wheel， so the driver can type with both thumbs and drive at the same time。 All the data smart wheel collects is also sent to a connected app， so any parents who install smart wheel can keep track of the teen‘s driving habits。 If they try to remove or damage the cover， that’s reported as well。
[C] Victims of accidents are nothing。
Different visions at GM, Google
Q22。 What is a major cause of road deaths among young Americans？
[D] Society condones their rude driving。
GM's preferred path to the self-driving car shows the difference between risk-averse automakers and the sink-or-swim startup culture of Silicon Valley.
Q23。 What is Smart Wheel？
3. Why does the author say:’ his car becomes the extension of his personality?’
Most car companies preach the wisdom of going step by step on self-driving cars, because moving too quickly would heighten the risk of recalls and lawsuits. But top executives at Google have set the goal of jumping straight to a car so sophisticated it could shuttle around the blind and the elderly.
Q24。 What happens if the driver has one hand on the wheel？
[A] Driving can show his real self。
The two visions have made it hard to talk about the technology without using loaded words. Some engineers and executives have begun insisting on terms such as "piloted" instead of "autonomous" and "driverless" to emphasize that a human will still be in control.
Q25。 How do parents keep track of their teen‘s driving habits？
[B] Driving can show the other part of his personality。
This year, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration tried to calm the debate with a set of dry technical terms ranging from Level 0 to Level 4 automation.
开车时发短信被列为2013年年轻美国人死于道路的主要原因。最近的一项研究表明，40%的美国青少年声称在驾驶员使用手机时让人危险。这听起来像是一种普遍的疾病，但技术现在可能有助于治愈。 T.J。 Evert是一位20岁的发明家，他提出了一种新颖的解决方案，可以很容易地通知发短信的司机。它被称为智能车轮，它被设计用于安装在大多数标准车辆的方向盘上，以跟踪司机是否始终有两只手在车轮上。 Evert的发明仅在单手握住车轮时用光线和声音警告司机。但只要他们将另一只手放回车轮上，灯光就会变回绿色，声音就会停止。它还监视所谓的“靠近手”，在靠近车轮顶部的地方双手靠得很近，因此驾驶者可以同时用拇指和驱动器敲击。所有数据智能车轮收集的信息也会发送到连接的应用程序，因此安装智能车轮的父母可以跟踪青少年的驾驶习惯。如果他们试图移除或损坏封面，那也是有报道的。
[C] Driving can bring out his character。
It cut down on misunderstandings, said Annie Lien, a former senior engineer at Audi who oversaw an effort to program a car to drive into a parking lot and park itself. (Lien said she prefers "automated" or "self-driving," though she admits to using "autonomous" on occasion because it has gained a fair amount of popularity.)
Q22。 美国年轻人死于道路的主要原因是什么？ Q23。 什么是智能车轮？ Q24。 如果驾驶员一只手放在车轮上会发生什么？ Q25。 父母如何跟踪他们青少年的驾驶习惯？
[D] His car embodies his temper。
Lien agrees with the automakers on the need for caution. She said moving too quickly could leave the first self-driving cars without certain features -- such as the ability to safely pull onto the shoulder of a highway, instead of just stopping in traffic, if a sick or sleeping driver does not retake control.
4. Which of the followings is NOT mentioned as a way against traffic accidents?
"That is a safety-critical feature that has be worked on and perfected," Lien said. "If you skip steps, this could be the step that you skip."
[A] Build more highways。
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[B] Stricter driving tests。
Getting Super Cruise software ready for market will be a big task, but most of the necessary hardware already is in high-end GM cars.
[C] Test drivers every three years。
A fully loaded Cadillac ATS sedan with a Driver Assistance package that launched last year has as many as 18 electronic eyes, in the form of sensors and cameras, Green said.
[D] raise age limit and lay down safety specifications。
The $3,220 package in the ATS includes eight ultrasonic sensors to help with parking -- 10 if the buyer opts for another self-parking feature. It also includes six radars to cover short, medium and long distances, a backup camera and a camera behind the rearview mirror for lane departure warning and forward collision warning.
5. The attitude of the author is
Using similar equipment for Super Cruise would reduce the feature's cost, making it easier to include in an add-on package. For comparison, Google's prototype cars use a roof-mounted lidar, or laser radar sensor, that cost about $70,000 last year.
"To bring a $20,000 option package to the market doesn't make sense. We'd sell two," Capp said. "We'd get a lot of press, and we could talk about how we were first to do this, that and the other thing, but we have stockholders too."
Unlike the traffic jam assist systems from BMW and Mercedes, GM's system will not require a driver to keep a hand on the wheel.
'Looking for the unexpected'
So engineers are coming up with ways to keep the driver engaged -- and set their product apart.
Green would not discuss what GM has in mind, but one possibility might be a haptic feedback seat that rumbles to warn a driver of danger. GM holds a patent on that feature, which is available in the ATS.
1. immunise 使免疫，使免除
Jeremy Salinger, r&d manager for Super Cruise, said engineers are refining Super Cruise by taking the SRX prototypes on half-day slogs, mostly around a circular four-mile track at the proving grounds. So far, they have put tens of thousands of miles on the system, he said.
2. expectation of life = life expectancy 平均寿命
The next step is making sure that Super Cruise can handle the varied weather and roads around the country. Simply reading standard lane markers is not enough; for instance, California has its "Botts' dots," raised bumps that replace painted lines.
3. versus = against 对顶，反对
As Salinger spoke, some of the great blue herons that roam GM's proving grounds were walking across a nearby road, paying no regard to the crosswalk -- just the type of surprise Super Cruise must to be prepared to handle.
4. mutilate 伤害
Said Salinger: "We're looking for the unexpected."
5. wilful 任性的，固执的
6. benign 宽厚的，仁慈的
7. condone 宽容
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