信任对许多重要事情来说是一个必要条件,按题

日期:2019-10-12编辑作者:外语留学

  2014年英语六级仔细阅读答案(第1套第1篇)

Section I Use of English

作文一:医患关系

  56、A根据四个有规律的选项信息可判断这是不定式问目的的题目。先找到定位点,再在定位点附近找包含信息的不定式。根据题干信息,画出定位词“computers, smartphones and other devices”可以迅速定位到文章首段首句——“Hospitals, hoping to curb medical error, have invested heavily to put computers, smartphones and other devices into the hands of medical staff…”。其中“invested…into the hands of medical staff”就是题干“equip their staff with。。”所同义改写的部分。定位句中的插入语部分“hoping to curb medical error”即要找的不定式,对比原文和选项,“curb”是抑制的意思,选项中的“reduce”是对它的同义改写,最后选A——to reduce medical error。

1、【答案】[B] for

For this part,you are allowed 30 minutes towrite a short essay on

  57、C 例证题。按题干定位词“distracted doctoring”定位在第三段。而distracted doctoring所描述的是第三段首句的“this phenomenon”,讲的是第二段中所例证的phenomenon,所以答案往上一段找。第二段首句举例说明了随之而来的“side effect”——“doctors and nurses can be focused on the screen and not the patient”、“admitted texting during a procedure”,可见作者通过说“distracted doctoring”是想说明devices的“side effect”,即C选项。

【解析】此处考察介词的用法。it’s a necessary condition ____ many worthwhile things (信任是一个必要条件_____许多重要事情) 此处应该是说,信任对许多重要事情来说是一个必要条件。B选项for(对...来说)符合语义,故为正确答案;A选项from(来自于),C选项like(像...),D选项on(关于)语义不恰当,故排除。

how to handle the relationship betweendoctors and patients. You should write

  58 、B 根据题干信息“Dr. Peter Papadakos”定位在文章第四段和第五段,其中都包含了DPP这个人所说的话。第四段说到把devices带到医院“to do medical records”,同时也可以上网、看脸书,而且这些会更加的“tempting”;第五段说道自己的“fut feeling”即“worry”是“lives are in danger”。总结两段的表述,devices对医生的吸引以及病人生命危在旦夕,即可选出B选项——Doctors’ interaction with their devices may endanger patients’ lives。

2、【答案】[C] faith

at least 120 words but no more than 180words.

  59、C 因果题。根据题干信息问的是“why”——原因,因此要确定找到定位点附近的因果词,判断孰因孰果选出答案。根据题干“increasing pressure”定位在文章第七段最后一行最后一句,根据金三句原则——定位句本身以及前句和后句,找到第八段首句“The pressure stems from”——“这种压力源自…”即答案在这个后面。可选出答案为在根据定位词oil trade以及顺序原则定位到文章最后一段。根据文章主旨和前文内容,或者是根据定位段信息可知“United States imports a great of energy”,让能源输出国有利可图,而同时“At the same time”,美国本身也有自身利益——“we derive massive economic benefits…when we engage in energy trade around the world。”,答案选A——“It proves profitable to both sides”。

【解析】此处考察词义辨析和中心一致性原则。第一段首句提出主题句:trust is a tricky business (信任是一个奇怪的东西)。后面进一步对该主题句进行解释说明:On the one hand, it’s a necessary condition ___ for ___ many worthwhile things: child care, friendships, etc. (一方面,信任对许多重要事情来说是必要条件,比如照看孩子,友谊等),这句话在说信任的好处。On the other hand, putting your ___ in the wrong place often carries a high ____. (另一方面,把...放在错误的地方往往会带来巨大...),显然这句话依旧在解释主题词“trust”,只有C选项faith(信任、忠诚)与trust属于近义词复现,故正确答案为[C] faith。

【参考范文】:

  60、B 根据题干信息Peter Carmel以及顺序原则定位到最后一段,而对“doctors”的“advice”应该在末段末句的后半部分“but he added that doctors’ first priority should be with the patient”,即对医生的建议摆在首位的一定是“patient”,四个选项中跟patient相关的只有选项B,其他均未提及。

3、【答案】[B] price

The growing conflict in service industries,especially the conflict between patients and doctors, has aroused a heateddiscussion as to the solutions to this phenomenon.Views on the topic varygreatly among people from different walks of life.

  2014年英语六级阅读答案之仔细阅读(第1套第2篇) 新东方在线[微博]周思成

【解析】此处考察词义辨析。第一段首句提出主题句:trust is a tricky business(信任是一个奇怪的东西)。后面进一步对该主题句进行解释说明:On the one hand, it’s a necessary condition __ for __ many worthwhile things: child care, friendships, etc. (一方面,信任对许多重要事情来说是必要条件,比如照看孩子,友谊等),这句话在说信任的好处。On the other hand, putting your ___ in the wrong place often carries a high____. (另一方面,把...放在错误的地方往往会带来巨大...),显然这句话依旧在解释主题词“trust”,并且根据空格所在句中的关键词“wrong place”,本句应该在说信任不当的弊端,所以空格处应该填入一个负向感情色彩的词,故A选项benefit和D选项hope排除,而C选项debt(债务)带入之后语义不当,故正确答案为[B] price(代价)。

There are several things we can do based onthe causes for such conflict. First, patients usually do not have a thoroughunderstanding of how challenging and frustrating a doctor's job could be;therefore, the government could create more chances for people to have accessto that kind of information. Also, it is also suggested that regular experiencesharing from experienced doctors and constant communication with patients,particularly those suffering from severe diseases, should be required of younginexperienced doctors so that they can put themselves in the patients' shoes.Finally, balancing medical resources in different areas will greatly relievethe pressure on doctors and hospitals because they do not need to deal with somany patients at a time.

  61.B

4、【答案】[D] Then

From my perspective, it is crucial that therelationship between doctors and patients be improved remarkably andimmediately. Only in this way can we build a harmonious society.

  What does the author think the leaders he knows?

【解析】此处考察逻辑关系。上段讲述的是信任的好处和信任不当的弊端。第二段段首提出问题:“_____我们为什么要信任”。只有D选项then(那么)填入后能形成顺畅的语义和逻辑关系。故正确答案为D then(那么)。A选项again(再次)表示强调;B选项instead(但是、然而)表示转折;C选项therefore(因此)表示结果,不符合要求,故排除。

图片 1

  A.Many of them are used to taking charge。(他们中的很多人习惯于掌控)

5、【答案】[A] When

短篇新闻

  B.Few of them are equal to their positions。(他们中很少有人配得上自己的职位)

【解析】此处考察逻辑关系。空格所在句含义为:______人们信任一个人或一个组织机构,他们的大脑会释放催产素。只有A选项when(当..时候)填入后符合逻辑要求,故正确答案为A选项when。其他三个选项B选项unless(如果不)表条件,C选项although(尽管)表让步,D选项until(直到...)表时间,带入后均语义不通顺,故排除。

  1. B) Her little brother.

  2. C) By selling lemonade and pictures.

  3. C) Providing clean energy to fivemillion people.

  4. B) They can be laid right on top ofexisting highways.

  5. A) Endless fighting in the region.

  6. D) To find evidence of the existence ofthe "lost lions".

  7. B) Lions' tracks.

  C.Many of them fail to fully develop their potential。(他们中的很多人没有完全开发自己的潜力)

6、【答案】[C] produce

长对话

  D.Few of them are familiar with leadership literature。(他们中很少有人熟悉领导手册)        题目问作者是如何看待他所认识的领导者的。通过顺序原则和定位词the leaders he knows可以找到文章第二段的第一句,I see way fewer truly effective leaders than I see people stuck in positions of leadership who are sadly incompetent and seriously misguided about their own abilities。注意这句话里的way并不是我们所熟知的名词含义“方法”,而是一个程度副词,类似于“相当地”。这句话的大致意思就是“相比于那些真正高效的领导者,我见到更多的是处在领导者的位置却却总是被自己的无能给蒙蔽的人”。B选项即为这句话的同义改写。

【解析】此处考察动宾搭配问题。上文指出:When people place their trust in an …their brains release oxytocin, a hormone.上文指出当人们产生信任感,大脑就会产生一种荷尔蒙,后面是定语从句,句内的动宾搭配, 可推知这个荷尔蒙能产生令人愉悦的情绪, 并且与后面的trigger同义复现,因此C .produce 正确。

Passage1

  62.A

7、【答案】[A] connect

  1. A) Her 'lucky birthday'.

  2. D) Threw her a surprise party.

  3. B) The trip her husband has planned.

  4. C) He is eager to learn how thecouple's holiday turns out.

  Why are some people eager to grab leadership positions?

【解析】此处考察上下文信息照应题。上文讲到这种荷尔蒙能够激发一种群居本能,the herding instinct that leads sheep to flock together for safety and promote …with one another,这种本能有两个作用,并用and 连接,所以复现同义and 前面的flock together. 因此选择A. connect

Passage2

  A.They believe they have the natural gift to lead。(他们认为自己有天生的领导才能)         

8、【答案】[B] to

  1. A) They are sensitive to the dynamicsof a negotiation.

  2. B) They know when to stop.

  3. C) They learn quickly.

  4. D) Get to know the other side.

  B.They believe in what leadership literature says。(他们相信领导手册说的东西)

【解析】此处考察上下语境下的名词介词搭配问题。根据上文的结论,下文实验展开分析,Swiss scientists have found that exposure to this hormone puts us….所以研究中要求受试者要先处于这种环境中,所以名词exposure to 构成搭配语义关系,表示“接触”的意思,因此选择to。

听力篇章

  C.They have proved competent in many situations。(他们在很多情况下都被证明是无能的)       

9、【答案】[D] mood

Passage1

  D.They derive great satisfaction from being leaders。(他们在做领导时感受到极度的不满)      题目问为什么很多人总是热衷于领导职位。这道题是因果细节题,常规的解决方法是通过题干路标词定位,再在定位句附近寻找因果逻辑词锁定答案。通过grab leadership position定位到第四段第二句Whether it’s a decision-making session, a basketball game, a family outing, they can’t help grabbing the lead dog position and cling to it for dear life. 这句话意思不难理解,说的就是很多人领导欲很强不管是在什么场合之下。往后一句话直接道破了他们这样做的原因。They believe they are natural born leaders. A选项同义改写,为正选。

【解析】此处考察上下文的信息对应和句内信息对应。上文提到身体会产生荷尔蒙,会给你带来一种愉悦的情绪pleasurable feelings,这个上文结论。实验中exposure to this hormone puts us in a trusting …,因此,根据上下文,试验中,处于这种荷尔蒙环境中,会给人带来情绪;语气;心境;。因此选择 mood。

  1. D) How space research benefits peopleon Earth.

  2. B) They developed objects forastronauts to use in outer space.

  3. C) They are extremely accurate.

  63.D

10、【答案】[A] counterparts

Passage2

  What characterizes a great leader according to the author?

【解析】此处考察上下文的信息对应和句内信息对应。上文指出,In a study, researchers sprayed oxytocin into the noses of half the subjects ,可推知本句再讲与另外一组受试者比较。故选择A。counterparts. 相对物,相对应的人。

  1. C)It marked the beginning of somethingnew.

  2. A)They believed working for goals.

  3. D)Doing needlework by the fire.

  A.Being able to take prompt action when chances present themselves。(当机会自己出现时能做出及时的反应)

11、【答案】[C] Lucky

Passage3

  B.Having a whole-hearted dedication to their divine responsibilities。(全身心地奉献给他们神圣的责任)

【解析】此处考察上下文的逻辑关系。因为这个句子当中有个词also,说明前文和后文情感是一致的关系。说我们有这两种天赋,对大家来说都是好事,所以需要选择一个正向的情感色彩。只能选择lucky。A选项odd 奇怪的是,B选项funny 有趣的是,D选项ironic 讽刺的是,皆不符合文意。

  1. C) Sit down and try to calm yourself

  2. B) You may expose yourself tounexpected dangers.

  3. D) Walk uphill.

  4. A) Inform somebody of your plan.

  C.Having a full understanding of their own merits and weaknesses。(对自己的优点和缺点有深刻的理解)

12、【答案】[A] protect

图片 2

  D.Being able to assess the situation carefully before taking charge。(能在掌控之前仔细评估形势)

【解析】此处考察上下文的成分搭配。因为这个句子当中有个词also,说明前文和后文情感是并列平行关系,前后情感应该一致。所以此处只能选择protect 保护我们,符合文意。B选项delight 使高兴; C 选项 surprise 使震惊;D选项monitor 监控皆不符合文意。

选词填空

  题目问根据作者,什么最能够用来形容一个成功的领导者。通过great leaders直接定位到文章第五段第四句。A great leader will assess each situation on its merits, and will only take charge when their position, the situation, and/or the needs of the moment demand it。这句话很明显就是作者对于成功领导者的描述,所以答案不言而喻,一个成功的领导者懂得审时度势,再决定是否应该掌控一切。所以D为正选。

13、【答案】[D] between

  1. [K] superior

  2. [D] nuisance

  3. [M] tip

  4. [O] visual

  5. [A] associated

  6. [F] preventing

  7. [H] sensitive

  8. [I] slight

  9. [C] indicate

  10. [J] specify

  64.B

【解析】此处考察固定搭配。differentiate between A and B. 介词between表示在A和B之间 , 原文含义为:“4个月大的孩子可以区分出一个可信的人和一个不诚实的人”。

长篇阅读

  How will many business executives respond when their command fails to generate action?   A.They reassess the situation at hand。(他们会重新估计当下的形势)

14、【答案】[C] introduced

  1. [I] Elderly students find it hard tokeep up with the rapid changes in education.

  2. [E] Some believe take-home exams mayaffect students' performances in others courses.

  3. [C] Certain professors believe in-classexams are ultimately more helpful to students

  4. [D] In-class exams are believed todiscourage cheating in exams.

  5. [B] The author was happy to learn shecould do some exams at home.

  6. [H] Students who put off their workuntil the last moment often find the exams more difficult than they actuallyare.

  7. [G] Different students may preferdifferent types of exams.

  8. [F] Most professors agree whether togive an in-class or a take-home exam depends on the type of course beingtaught.

  9. [A] The author dropped out of collegesome forty years ago.

  10. [J] Some students think take-home examswill eat up their free time.

  B.They become impatient and rude。(他们变的不耐烦和粗鲁)

【解析】此处考察成分搭配。原文表达: Sixty toddlers were each______ to an adult tester holding a plastic container. 只有C选项be introduced to sth表示“初次认识某事物”,符合文意。A 选项added 添加;B选项transferred转移;D选项 entrusted 委托,皆不符合文意。

图片 3

  C.They resort to any tool available。(他们会使用任何可用的工具)

15、【答案】[B] inside

仔细阅读

  D.They blame their team members。(他们会埋怨自己的团队成员)

【解析】此处考察介词搭配及词义复现。原文表达:“What’s in here?” before looking into the container…… Each subject was then invited to _________. 只有选择B选项inside 才能和前文所表达的in here和looking into一脉相承。

Passage1

  题目问当命令没有落实到行动时,很多经理是如何反应的。通过many business executives 定位到第六段第一句话,Many business executives confuse leadership with action. 这句话并没有直接体现答案,所以我们可以适当地往后读。第三句话写到Faced with any situation can’t be solved by the sheer force of activity, they generate a dust cloud of impatience。意思是“当遇到没法全凭行动来解决的问题时,他们就会变得极度不耐烦”。这句话基本对应了B选项的impatient,但是还不够。再往后一句话,Their one leadership tool is volume: if they think you are not working as hard as they think you should, their demands become increasingly louder and harsher. “声音是他们的领导工具之一,如果他们认为你没有像他们期望的那么努力工作,他们的命令就会变得越来越大声和刺耳”。这一句话对应的是B里的rude。所以B为正选。

16、【答案】[D] discovered

  1. D) In what way it can be beneficial.

  2. C) She got some idea from previousstudies on birds and dolphins.

  3. A) She monitored the brain activity ofparticipants sleeping in a new environment.

  4. C) She exposed her participants to twodifferent stimuli.

  5. B) They tended to perceive irregularbeeps as a threat.

  65.C

【解析】此处考察词义复现,属于句子内部的显性线索。根据原文Half of them found a toy; the other half 16 the container was empty… 这是用分号并列的连个句子,都是在讲试验的结果句型结构基本一致,前半句再讲一半的受测者在盒子里面找到了玩具,后半句肯定是再说另半会怎么样,两个小分句的结构基本一致Half of them = the other half,found=16,a toy= the container was empty,所以16题填入的应该是found的同义词,发现的含义,故D为正确选项。

题目一:

  What is the author’s advice to leaders?

17、【答案】[A] fooled

华山位于华阴市,距西安120公里。华山是秦岭的一部分,秦岭不仅分隔陕南与陕北,也分隔华南与华北。与从前人们常去朝拜的泰山不同,华山过去很少有人光临。因为上山的道路极其危险。然而,希望长寿的人却经常上山,因为山上生长着许多药草,特别是一些稀有的药草。自上世纪90年代安装缆车以来,参观人数大大增加。

  A.Concentrate on one specific task at a time。(同时只专注于一个特定的任务)

【解析】此处句间逻辑关系,属于句子内部的显性线索。—and realized the tester had 17 them,此句位于破折号后面,是对前面意思的解释说明。前面提到另一半人发现盒子是空的,并且意识到测试者对他们怎么样,既然盒子是空的那么肯定认识到测试者是在戏弄他们,所以作对此题必须要理解tester测试者是主语,宾语是them指的是受测者,主语的意思决定了谓语动词的含义为戏弄,故A fooled为正确选项。

【参考范文】

  B.Use different tools to achieve different goals。(用不同的工具来实现不同的目标)           

18、【答案】[B] willing

120 kilometers from Xi’an, Huashan Mountainis located in the City of Huayin. Huashan Mountain, which is part of QinlingMountains. Not only does it separate Northern Shaanxi and Southern Shaanxi, butit also divides China into Northern and Southern parts. Unlike the widelyworshipped Mount Taishan, Huashan Mountain used to be barely visited, owing tothe treacherous paths to the top. Despite that, those people who longed forlongevity trekked Huashan Mountain constantly, probing for the numerousvarieties of medical herbs, particularly the scarce. The past few years havewitnessed an increasing number of travelers since the installation of theaerial tramway in 1990s.

  C.Build up s strong team to achieve their goals。(建立一个强大的团队来实现他们的目标)     

【解析】 此处考察搭配关系,属于句子内部的显性线索。Among the children who had not been tricked, the majority were 18 to cooperate with the tester in learning a new skill, demonstrating that they trusted his leadership. 根据句子结构我们可以看出逗号之前是一个介词短语意为在所有没有被戏弄过的孩子里面,大多数的孩子在习得一种新技能的时候与测试者的合作是怎么样的,demonstrating that they trusted his leadership表明这些孩子信任他的领导,所以既然信任他们就是愿意与其合作,故选择B. willing,与were willing to 构成固定搭配,意为愿意。

  D.Show determination when faced with tough tasks。(面临艰巨的任务时体现出强烈的决心)      题目问作者对于领导的建议是什么。做完前面四道题还有最后两段话没有用于定位,所以完全可以把两段话都快速读一遍。本题的答案出自最后一句话。A true leader is someone who develops his or her team so that they can and do hit their targets and achieve their goals. C选项就是整句话的同义改写,为正选。ABD均为无中生有。

19、【答案】[D] In contrast

【解析】此处考察句间的逻辑关系。19, only five of the 30 children paired with the “20” tester participated in a follow-up activity. 通过该句中的only仅仅,可以看出与上文的 the majority of 形成鲜明的对比,19题应该填入的应该是表示转折,与上文形成对比的逻辑关系词。分析四个选项A表示总结,B表示结果,C表示举例子,只有D表示转折,对比,故D为正确选项。

20、【答案】[C] unreliable

【解析】此处考察词义辨析。19, only five of the 30 children paired with the “20” tester participated in a follow-up activity.该句含义为:在接下来的活动中30个孩子中只有5个孩子与。。。样的测试者能合作,所以结合上文提到的大部分孩子信任测试者,但是5/30属于一小部分,大部分对应的是信任,那么小比例的对应的是不信任,所以 tester的修饰词应该为C,unreliable不可靠的,不可信任的,故C为正确选项。

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A

Text 1

21、【答案】D Middle-class workers

【解析】根据题干中“threatned”和“automation”定位到第一段首句“the annoyi-ng challenge facing the middle class is one that...for their jobs”中的challenge和第二段的最后三句话,可以得知相对于低收入者和富人,中产阶级受到的冲击最大。

22、【答案】C Issues arising from automation need to be tackled

【解析】根据题干可定位到第三段中的首句“this isn’t to be alarmist”和末句“But ... middle-class workers may need a lot of help adjusting”,but转折句再一次强调了作者的观点,即中产阶级工人需要很多帮助来调整应对问题。同时,末句中”may need a lot of help”同义替换成选项C中的“need to be tackled”,自动化带来的问题需要被解决,得出C答案。

23、【答案】A creative potential

【解析】根据题干中的关键词可定位到第四段第二句“Curriculums—from grammar school to college—should evolve to focus less on memorizing facts and more on creativity and complex communication”。由该句可知,课程应该更关注创造性和复杂的沟通而非记忆事实。所以,应该选C选项creative potential(创造潜能),同义替换为creativity。

24、【答案】D preventing the income gap from widening

【解析】该题考查作者的观点,根据题干中的关键词可定位到第六段第一句“Finally, because automation threatens to widen the gap between capital income and labor income, taxes and the safety net will have to be rethought”。由该句可知,由于自动化加大了资本收入和劳动力收入的差距,所以应该重新考虑税收和安全网(保障措施),即税收政策应该避免收入差距扩大,选D选项preventing the income gap from widening。

25、【答案】B possible solutions to it

【解析】作者在文章第一、二段提出问题“中产阶级受自动化危害最大”之后,第三段的末尾句提出中产阶级需要帮助去适应自动化的发展,接下来第四段至第六段介绍解决方法,最后一段表明作者观点。所以应该选B 选项possible solutions to it(解决问题的相应方法)。

Text 2

26、【答案】[D] social media as a reliable source of news

【解析】双段推理题。根据题目定位到第1段和第2段,双段推理优先考虑双段主旨。第一段中心句为最后一句话:Millennials prefer news from the White House to be filtered through other sources, not a president’s social media platform。“千禧一代喜欢白宫直接发布的消息…而不是总统社交媒体发布的信息”,说明他们不太信任社交媒体。第2段中心为第二句转折之后,说明对于社交媒体的不信任上升。故双段中心都和他们不信任社交媒体相关。结合以上信息,得出社交媒体信息不可靠,选择D。

27、【答案】[A] sharpen

【解析】词汇释义题。根据题目定位到第2段第2句:Yet as distrust has risen toward all media,people may be starting to beef up their media literacy skills。句子的情感色彩判断,因为逗号前提到“人们对于所有媒体的不信任增加”,可以推知人们应该开始增强其媒体素养的技能,故选A。

  1. 【答案】B verify news by referring to diverse sources.

【解析】范例证明题。根据题干定位至第三段第二句话。因为某项研究一般是论据证明前面的论点,故答案应该位于第一句话“Young people who are digital natives are indeed becoming more skillful at seperating fact from fiction in cyberspace.” 说明答案应该“和年轻人更容易把网络中的事实和虚假信息区分开来”,故答案为B“验证新闻的真伪”。为了精确可以在论据中去验证,论据中提到“verify stories”, “cross check sources”和“prefer news from different perspectives”,都是和多重角度验证信息真伪相关的。

  1. 【答案】C readers’ misinterpretation

【解析】事实细节题。根据题干定位至第五段第三句found之后a main reason对应the top reason,而原文剩余信息为“reader error”, 所以应该和读者相关。Error应该对应misinterpretation, 故答案为C readers’ misinterpretation。若本句不清晰,下句进一步说明答案的内容,文中misintepretation or exerggeration of actual news进一步印证C为正确答案。

  1. 【答案】A A Rise in Critical Skills for Sharing News Online

【解析】全文主旨题。本篇文章属于篇首转折,二段转折之后为全文主旨,yet之后说道:“Yet as distrust has risen toward all media, people may be strarting to beef up their media literacy skills”.“随着对于所有媒体不信任的上升,人们开始增强其媒体素养的技能”,故答案为A。为了验证,可以看篇末,篇末重申主题,so之后讲道“so when young people are critical of an over-tweeting president, they reaveal a mental discipline in thinking skills-and in their choices on when to share on social media.” 更进一步说明和人们批判性看待社交媒体上的新闻相关。

Text 3

31、【答案】[B] It failed to pay due attention to patients’ rights.

【解析】细节题。根据题干中的NHS, DeepMind和agreement回文定位第一段第四句“It is against that background that the information commissioner, has issued her damning verdict against the Royal Free hospital trust under the NHS, which handed over to DeepMind the records of 1.6 million patients in 2015 on the basis of a vague agreement which took far too little account of the patients’ rights and their expectations of privacy”。根据a vague agreement which took far too little account of the patients’ rights and their expectations of privacy这一部分的语义信息,说明NHS与DeepMind之间的协议没有充分考虑到病人的权利与隐私。这句话的言外之意就是协议未能充分关注病人的权利。故确定答案为选项B,其中failed to是took far too little account的同义改写。

32、【答案】[C] necessary adjustments.

【解析】细节题。根据题干中的NHS trust, 以及Denham’s verdict回文定位第二段第二句“The NHS trust has mended its ways.” 根据第二句的语义信息,NHS trust针对Denham’s verdict已经调整了其与DeepMind的协议内容,故通过同义替换,可确定正确答案为C。

33、【答案】[D] the value of data comes from the processing of it.

【解析】推理题。根据题干,此题定位在第二段最后一句but之后的转折句。“But this distinction misses the point that it is processing and aggregation, not the mere possession of bits, that gives data value”. 这种区分忽视了一个点:是处理和收集赋予数据意义,而不是拥有数据。 选项中的 “processing”和原文中的“processing”原词复现。 选项中的“the value of data”对应原文中的“data value”。因此,D项为正确答案。

34、【答案】[D] the monopoly of big data by tech giants.

【解析】细节题。根据题干此题定位在文中最后一段的第四句。“What matters is that they will belong to a private monopoly which developed them using public resources.”重要的是这些进步属于一个私人垄断企业,而私人垄断企来使用公共资源进行研发。而这正真正的担忧所在。因此,选项D为正确答案, the monopoly of big data by tech giants对应原文中的a private monopoly。

35、【答案】[B] cautious

【解析】态度题。本题考查作者对本文主题“将人工智能应用于医疗健康”的态度。根据顺序性原则定位在最后一段。该段倒数第三句话指出“我们目前依然处于这一改革的前期,并且任何小的选择都会对未来产生深远的影响”,其中“still”一词,以及“small”(小)和“gigantic”(巨大的)对比,都体现出了作者对待整个事件是小心谨慎的态度,因此[B] cautious为正确答案。

Text 4

36、【答案】[B] its rigid management

【解析】根据题干判断本题考查因果细节。第一段的前三句都是有关USPS的具体数字,属于细节信息。第四句出现many reasons很多原因。紧接着下面就有fundamentally根本原因是, 所以定位在第一段的最后一句。然后分析这个长难句,USPS 处在squeeze between 1 and 2,中,1是technological change, 2是structure.  2的structure后定语从句:denies management flexibility 对应选项B: rigid management。

【干扰项分析】:选项A,budget文中未有涉及。 选项C,虽然有提到technological ,原文technological change 后的定语从句说的是:技术改革降低需求,并没有提到cost成本问题。选项D,the withdrawal of bank support 银行支持撤销了,原文并没有提及银行支持,直接排除。

37、【答案】[A] the interference from interest groups

【解析】 根据题干due to,判断本题考查因果细节。根据题干关键词:USPS fails to modernize 定位到原文第二段最后一句,在这句前leaving,留下,导致这个结果,往前找原因,前一句提到reform legislation, 而且这句前还有this is why,只要找到代词this指代就可以判断选项。代词往前推,根据这句主干interest groups exerts pressure on Congress选择选项A,interference 对应 exert pressure on。

【干扰项分析】选项B,the inadequate funding from Congress,原文虽然有提到Congress国会,the aspect of status quo get protected,  国会保护USPS,并没有提及inadequate funding基金不足。选项C,the shrinking demand for postal service 邮政需求缩减,文中没有提及。选项D, the incompetence of postal unions 邮政工会的不作为。文章有提到工会,但是只提他们是属于Interest groups,并没有提到无作为。

38、【答案】[A] removing its burden of retiree health care

【解析】 因果细节题。根据38题题干The long-standing complaint by the ....回文定位到第3段,最后一句:“ The latter step would largely offset the financial burden of annually pre-funding retiree health care, thus....” .再根据题干中“ can be addressed by” 即:通过哪种方式解决,此处为解题要点,通过哪种方式来解决,前后明显为结果与途径的关系,即可理解为因果关系。文章此句后半句正是题干,thus前半句为答案The latter step would largely offset the financial burden of annually pre-funding retiree health care。与 A. B . C .D 四个选项匹配后,正确答案为 A removing its burden of retiree health care。

39、【答案】[C] discontent

【解析】根据题干可以判断本题为观点态度题。回文定位到最后一段。题干“the author seems to view legislators with”, 具体定位到最后一段倒数第2句:“ The emerging.....is a sign that legislators are getting frightened.......” 再根据题干,问作者最终态度,本段最后一句,转折句是作者最终的态度:“ It is not, however, a sign that they’re getting serious about....” , 即作者认为他们并没有认真对待。所以此处作者态度为否定。匹配A B C D 四个选项 只有C discontent( 不满)为负向信息,所以为正确答案。

40、【答案】[D] The Postal Service Needs more than a Band-Aid

【解析】根据题干特征词“best title”,这是一道主旨题。根据前四道题问的主题,第一道题和第二道题是USPS出现了问题,并分析原因,第三道题给出解决方法,第四道题提到作者对于这个方法的态度,即提出问题—分析问题—解决问题,并在最后给出作者对这个解决方案的评价。根据这个文章框架,首先A选项“USPS开始错过了它的好时光”,这只是提出问题,相对片面;B选项“USPS:不要动我的奶酪”, 这是拒绝解决问题的态度,不符合文章的写作思路;C选项“USPS:慢性病需要快方法”,这个chronic和quick都没有在文中提到;D选项“USPS需要的不仅仅是权宜之计”,这说的其实作者对于解决方案的评价,在文章最后一段。这段最后结尾有But,有however, “it[指代前文讲的方法] is not a sign……”,对此作者表示否定态度。所以D选项为正确答案。

Part B

41、【答案】 [E] The Eisenhower Executive Office Building(EEOB) commands a…

【解析】 E段首先介绍EEOB的全称,对全文进行概述提出话题,可选为41题答案。同时,从给定选项C第一句提到the State, War,and Navy Building…,the在此特指,可以作为另一一个线索,在E选项中最后一句,复现了the State, War,and Navy Building...。故41题答案选E。

42、【答案】[G] The history of the EEOB began long before its…

【解析】C选项最后一句谈到了many historic events(建筑内呈现了历史事件),而G选项第一句提到了the history of the EEOB…(EEOB的历史...),意思一致,承上启下,故42题答案选G。

43、【答案】[A] In December of 1869, Congress appointed…

【解析】确定G后,根据G选项最后一句,...the demolition of the State Department Building(谈到拆除the State Department Building), 而A选项中谈到了select a site and prepare plans and cost estimates for a new State Department,建立一个新的State Department Building,前后意思顺接,故43题答案选A。

44、【答案】[B] Completed in 1875, the State Department’s south wing…

【解析】 根据给定的F段,首句是段落大意,该句提到了...as the building slowly rose wing by wing(该建筑逐翼展开). 而B选项第一句谈到了...south wing was the first to be occupied(首先坐落在南翼),然后在B选项最后一句又谈到...moved into the east wing(之后又移至东翼). 先在F段总起,再在B段中分说,前后对应,故44题答案选B.

45、【答案】[D] Many of the most celebrated national figures…

【解析】 B段结尾处谈到了where elaborate wall…decorated the office of the Secretary(这些精美的墙....装饰了秘书处的办公室),而D段第一句提到了...that have taken place within the EEOB’s granite walls(历史事件在这些EEOB的墙上呈现), the wall原词复现,两句话意思一致,故45题答案选D。

Section III Translation

(46) By the date of his birth Europe was witnessing the passing of the religious drama, and the creation of new forms under the incentive of classical tragedy and comedy.

【题目考点】代词还原;并列结构

【句子结构】and并列两个句子,主干分别为:…Europe was witnessing the passing … and the creation of …;of the religious drama为定语修饰the passing;under the incentive of classical tragedy and comedy为状语

【重点词汇】witness 见证 religious宗教的 drama戏剧 incentive刺激

【参考译文】莎士比亚出生之时,欧洲宗教戏剧正在消逝,在古典悲剧和戏剧的推动下,很多新的戏剧形式应运而生。

(47) no boy who went to a grammar school could be ignorant that the drama was a form of literature which gave glory to Greece and Rome and might yet bring honor to England.

【题目考点】定语从句;宾语从句;并列结构

【句子结构】主句主干:no boy… could be ignorant that…。who引导的定语从句修饰boy, that引导为形容词ignorant的宾语从句,which引导的定语从句修饰a form of literature, gave…and might bring honor…为先行词a form of literature的并列谓语结构。

【重点词汇】grammar school 文法学校 ignorant忽视 literature文学 glory 荣耀

【参考译文】任何文法学校的学生都知道戏剧是一种文学形式,它曾给希腊和罗马带来荣耀,也许同样会给英格兰带来殊荣。

(48) But the professional companies prospered in their permanent theaters, and university men with literary ambitions were quick to turn to these theaters as offering a means of livelihood.

【题目考点】并列句

【句子结构】并列句主干分别为:…companies prospered … and university men …were quick to…

【重点词汇】professional 专业的 prosper繁荣 permanent theater永久性剧院

【参考译文】但是专业公司的永久性剧院却兴旺起来,于是高校一些有着文学抱负的人迅速抓住机遇,将其作为一个谋生手段。

(49) A native literary drama had been created, its alliance with the public playhouses established, and at least some of its great traditions had been begun.

【题目考点】伴随状语,并列结构,被动语态

【句子结构】本句是一个由and连接的并列句。and前的句子主干为一个被动语态的简单句:a … drama had been created, with引导一个伴随状语;and后的句子也为一个被动语态的简单句:some of its great traditions had been begun。

【重点词汇】alliance作为名词意为“联盟,联合;联姻”,常与介词with进行搭配使用。establish作为动词意为“建立,创办”,也可引申为“诞生”。at least为固定搭配,表示“至少”。tradition作为名词表示“传统,惯例”。

【参考译文】一种本土文学戏剧形式诞生了,它与公共剧院结成联盟,至少它的一些优良传统开始登上历史舞台了。

(50) To realize how great was the dramatic activity, we must remember further that hosts of plays have been lost, and that probably there is no author of note whose entire work has survived.

【题目考点】非谓语,宾语从句,定语从句

【句子结构】本句结构较为复杂,主句部分为“we must remember…”,主句之前的非谓语to realize作为目的状语,后接了一个how引导的宾语从句。主句中,两个that分别引导了两个remember的宾语从句,其中第二个宾语从句中,有一个whose引导的定语从句,修饰author of note。

【重点词汇】realize作为动词表示“实现,了解,认识到”。dramatic为drama的形容词形式,意思为“戏剧的,引人注目的,激动人心的”。survive作为动词表示“幸存,活下来;比…活得长”。hosts of表示“大量的”。

【参考译文】为了了解戏剧性活动有多么伟大,我们必须牢记大量的戏剧已经被遗忘了,并且有可能没有一位知名作家的所有作品都保留了下来。

Section IV Writing

51.【参考范文】

Dear professors,

I, on behalf of the Students’ Union, am writing this letter to invite all of you to attend the graduation ceremony.

The ceremony will be held in the Sports Hall of our university on this Friday morning, from 9 a.m. to 11 a.m. The details about the ceremony are as follows. First and foremost, the president will make a speech for the graduates, blessing them to have a bright future. In addition, several experts will be invited to issuing certificates to all the graduates.

It would be a great honor for us to have the accompany of all of you in the graduation ceremony. Therefore, we all hope that you can spare your time to attend it and we are looking forward to your reply to tell us whether you can attend it or not on that day.

Your sincerely,

Li Ming

52.【参考范文】

Exhibited in the cartoon is a sarcastic scene that sitting before a computer, a college student is choosing his optional class, wondering and pondering whether he should choose an easier course or a tougher but creative course. Simple as the picture is, the symbolic meaning it conveys is profound and thought-provoking.

It is beyond doubt that the painter aims to tell us that everyone, especially college students, should have the spirit of creation and innovation. To put it another way, innovation is an essential and indispensable role for anyone who wants to succeed. This can be directly attributed to the fact that one may be caught in dilemma, at least once in life. Such a dilemma may coincidentally be most difficult period in his life. Then there are two choices before him: making a creative choice or an easier one. If he chooses the former and tries to break through the barrier, difficult as it will be, success will be the result one day. However, although it seems to be much easier for him at the moment, the latter choice may kill off his dream and ambition, and such choice then will be a pity all his life.

As college student, definitely, we are facing or will face many difficulties. At such moment, we should bear in mind that creation is a necessary and indispensable quality in our life, a positive attitude to life and an approach to success. Keep the spirit of innovation, and we will win a better life.

(来源:万学海文)

(责编:韩亚召(实习生)、袁勃)

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